The city of Jaén is the administrative and industrial centre for the province. Industrial establishments in the city include chemical works, tanneries, distilleries, cookie factories, textile factories, as well as agricultural and olive oil processing machinery industry.
The layout of Jaén is determined by its position in the hills of the Santa Catalina mountains, with steep, narrow streets, in the historical central city district.
Following the Umayyad conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the name of Yaiyyan (of unclear origin) was mentioned in Hispano-Arab sources already in the 8th century. Close to Córdoba, the city became the head of an important kura [es] in the emiral/caliphal period of Al-Andalus, extending across a territory with some similarities to the current province. During the turbulent 11th century, in the context of the Fitna of al-Andalus, the wider kura was territory in dispute between the most powerful neighbouring taifas, such as Córdoba, Granada or Toledo, splitting up its territory. Jaén was conquered by Habbus al-Muzaffar, leader of the Zirid Taifa of Granada. Decades after the final demise of the caliphate of Córdoba, Jaén was conquered by the Almoravids in 1091
In 1225, Ferdinand III of Castile unsuccessfully laid siege to the city (defended by strong walls built during the Almoravid period) with help from Al-Bayyasi [es], ruler of the Taifa of Baeza, that had just become a vassal state of the Kingdom of Castile. The city was besieged again in 1230 by Ferdinand, who lifted the siege after the news of the death of his father, Alfonso IX of León. Depleted from its defences and surrounding fields, the city was surrendered by Muhammad I of Granada to Ferdinand III on 28 February 1246. Also in 1246, the city was granted a fuero (charter) similar to that of Toledo, becoming in turn the model for the fueros granted to Jódar (1272), Arjona (1284), Alcalá la Real (1341) and Priego (1341). Following the conquest, by 1248–49, the Diocese of Baeza was moved to Jaén.en.wikipedia.org